This consisted of 25 gun barrels fastened to a wooden frame that could be fired simultaneously. The Last King - Der Erbe des Königs Trailer German Deutsch (NO 2016, OT: Birkebeinerne Trailer) Abonniere uns! [citation needed]. Menu . Because neither Hugh nor Philip were sole or senior king in their own lifetimes, they are not traditionally listed as Kings of France and are not given ordinals. Most of Northern France was under English control until 1435, but by 1453, the English had been expelled from all of France save Calais (and the Channel Islands), and Calais itself fell in 1558. In October he returned to the Army of the North, where Dumouriez had begun a march into the Austrian Netherlands (now Belgium). Newman, Edgar Leon, and Robert Lawrence Simpson. Louis Philippe died at Claremont on 26 August 1850. He was the last monarch to rule France; thereafter, the country was ruled by a succession of republican governments (see French Third Republic). He took the regnal name of Napoleon III, after his uncle (Napoleon I) and his cousin (Napoleon II, who was declared but uncrowned as heir to the Imperial throne). WEBRip 4K; REMUX UltraHD … Two days later the Second French Republic was declared. He was executed by guillotine together with his two co-conspirators the following year. Eventually, the brothers sailed back to New York, and in January 1800, they arrived in England, where they stayed for the next fifteen years. Douglas Kibbee says ‘French as a native language is definitely on the decline, even among nobility of Norman origin’ by the early 13th century (quoted by Jacquie Heys). The young ex-king, the Duke of Bordeaux, who, in exile, took the title of comte de Chambord, later became the pretender to the throne of France and was supported by the Legitimists. What is there against him? At a river crossing on the same day, another crowd threatened to harm the priests. Henry himself was crowned by a different faction in 1431, though at the age of 10, he had yet to come of age. They were descended from the third son of Philip III, Charles, Count of Valois. The death of Charles IV started the Hundred Years' War between the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet later the House of Lancaster over control of the French throne. He had lived by his own labor. In 1830, the July Revolution overthrew Charles X, who abdicated in favour of his 10-year-old grandson, Henri, Duke of Bordeaux, and, naming Louis Philippe Lieutenant général du royaume, charged him to announce to the popularly elected Chamber of Deputies his desire to have his grandson succeed him. Fearful of what had happened to the deposed Louis XVI, Louis Philippe quickly left Paris under disguise. Clovis I was the first of these to rise to true kingship. Louis Philippe rallied a group of units, dubbing them "the battalion of Mons" and pushed forward along with other French units, finally overwhelming the outnumbered Austrians. During the king's annual review of the Paris National Guard commemorating the revolution, Louis Philippe was passing along the Boulevard du Temple, which connected Place de la République to the Bastille, accompanied by three of his sons, the Duke of Orleans, the Duke of Nemours, and the Prince de Joinville, and numerous staff. Over 100,000 French translations of English words and phrases. They went to Zug, where Louis Philippe was discovered by a group of émigrés. The Bourbon Restoration came to an end with the July Revolution of 1830, which deposed Charles X and replaced him with Louis Philippe I, a distant cousin with more liberal politics. Louis Philippe was born in the Palais Royal, the residence of the Orléans family in Paris, to Louis Philippe, Duke of Chartres (Duke of Orléans, upon the death of his father Louis Philippe I), and Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon. This soon proved to be to his advantage. [12][13] The King and the princes escaped essentially unharmed. Other than Henry VI, none had ever had their claim backed by treaty, and his title became contested after 1429, when Charles VII was crowned. At the age of nineteen, and already a Lieutenant General, Louis Philippe left France; it was some twenty-one years before he again set foot on French soil. A member of the family, Rudolph (Raoul), was elected "King of the Franks" in 923. Unable to find passage to Europe, the three brothers spent a year in Cuba, until they were unexpectedly expelled by the Spanish authorities. The Valois line would rule France until the line became extinct in 1589, in the backdrop of the French Wars of Religion. Toutes les éval. It was a constitutional innovation known as popular monarchy, which linked the monarch's title to the French people rather than to the possession of the territory of France.[1]. (NRK-TV Norsk Rikskringkasting)", "Ealing and Brentford: Education - British History Online", "Les Miserables by Victor Hugo: Chapter III. In the latter case, Henri, comte de Paris, duc de France, challenged the right of the Spanish-born pretender to use the title Duke of Anjou. After war was declared by the Kingdom of France on the Habsburg Monarchy on 20 April 1792, Louis Philippe saw his first exchanges of fire of the French Revolutionary Wars within the invaded by France Austrian Netherlands at Boussu, Walloon, on about 28 April 1792, and then at Quaregnon, Walloon, on about 29 April 1792, and then at Quiévrain, Walloon, near Jemappes, Walloon, on about 30 April 1792, where he was instrumental in rallying a unit of retreating soldiers after the victorious Battle of Quiévrain (1792) only two days earlier on 28 April 1792. This marked the second time the thrones of Navarre and France were united under one monarch; as different inheritance laws had caused them to become separated during the events of the Hundred Years Wars. In 1832, his daughter, Princess Louise-Marie, married the first ruler of Belgium, Leopold I, King of the Belgians. The two sides challenged each other in the French Republic's law courts in 1897 and again nearly a century later. On 6 November 1792, Dumouriez chose to attack an Austrian force in a strong position on the heights of Cuesmes and Jemappes to the west of Mons. The title "King of the Franks" (Latin: Rex Francorum) gradually lost ground after 1190, during the reign of Philip II (but FRANCORUM REX continued to be used, for example by Louis XII in 1499, by Francis I in 1515, and by Henry II about 1550). En 866, le fils ainé du roi saxon de Bebbanburg voit arriver des drakkars et est tué par le comte danois Ragnar. This, however, was a troubled journey, as Spain and Great Britain were then at war. While visiting Muonio, he supposedly sired a child with Beata Caisa Wahlborn (1766–1830) called Erik Kolstrøm (1796–1879).[2]. Once again, Louis Philippe was praised in a letter by Dumouriez after the battle. His first son, Francis II, died in his minority. The dynasty is named after one of these mayors of the palace, Charles Martel, whose son Pepin the Short dethroned the Merovingians in 751, and with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy, was crowned King of the Franks. That line became extinct in 1328, creating a succession crisis known as the Hundred Years War. Louis XVIII was reinstalled as king on 7 July. In 1876, his remains and those of his wife were taken to France and buried at the Chapelle royale de Dreux, the Orléans family necropolis his mother had built in 1816, and which he had enlarged and embellished after her death. Extreme Download Films HDLight Nouveauté HDLight 720p The Last King - FRENCH HDLight 720p Louis Napoléon Bonaparte was elected president on 10 December 1848; on 2 December 1851, he declared himself president for life and then Emperor Napoleon III in 1852. ", This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 19:15. 2 of 2: Being a History from the Birth of Louis Philippe in 1773 to the Revolution of 1848 (Classic Reprint) et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. II: being a history from the birth of Louis Philippe in 1773 to the revolution of 1848 et des millions de … During their sojourn, the Orléans princes travelled throughout the country, as far south as Nashville and as far north as Maine. [a] During the brief period when the French Constitution of 1791 was in effect (1791–1792) and after the July Revolution in 1830, the style "King of the French" was used instead of "King of France (and Navarre)". The final phase of the Hundred Years War was fought between these competing factions, resulting in a Valois victory at the Battle of Castillon in 1453, putting an end to any meaningful claims of the English monarchs over the throne of France, though English (and later British) monarchs would continue to use the title "King of France" until 1801. Some suggested a monarchical restoration under a later comte de Paris after the fall of the Vichy regime but this did not occur. BDRiP/DVDRiP; DVDSCR/R5; TS/CAM; DVD9; Filmographie; Nouveauté HDLight. Throughout this period, he never stayed in one place more than 48 hours. House of Lancaster (1422–1453) (disputed), House of Bonaparte, First Empire (1804–1814), House of Bourbon, Bourbon Restoration (1814–1815), House of Bonaparte, First Empire (Hundred Days, 1815), House of Orléans, July Monarchy (1830–1848), House of Bonaparte, Second Empire (1852–1870). He took power in 1830 after the July Revolution, but was forced to abdicate after an uprising in 1848. He was proclaimed king in 1830 after Charles X abdicated, before he himself was forced to abdicate in 1848 thus becoming the … A further 22 people were injured. Découvrez toutes les infos concernant la Saison 5 de The Last Kingdom sur Netflix ! Noté /5. History casts him as a passive king—a plump and nerdy bystander to inequality who didn’t wake up … [28] The British Lieutenant-Governor Captain William Hobson subsequently went on to claim sovereignty over Port Louis-Philippe. Often, in the midst of his gravest souvenirs, after a day of conflict with the whole diplomacy of the continent, he returned at night to his apartments, and there, exhausted with fatigue, overwhelmed with sleep, what did he do? Louis Philippe was on far friendlier terms with Louis XVIII's brother and successor, Charles X, who acceded to the throne in 1824, and with whom he socialized. His second son, Charles IX, had no legitimate sons to inherit. In the Army of the North, Louis Philippe served with four future Marshals of France: Macdonald, Mortier (who would later be killed in an assassination attempt on Louis Philippe), Davout and Oudinot. Dumouriez had met with Louis Philippe on 22 March 1793 and urged his subordinate to join in the attempt. When a revolution broke out he fled to Great Britain leaving his grandson Prince Philippe, Count of Paris as King of the French. Préparez-vous pour une aventure délicieuse ! The Merovingian kings began as mere chieftains, the oldest known being Pharamond. The reaction in Paris to Louis Philippe's involvement in Dumouriez's treason inevitably resulted in misfortunes for the Orléans family. Louis Philippe put himself between a peasant armed with a carbine and the priests, saving their lives. He is good at times even to the point of being admirable. [2], In 1808, Louis Philippe proposed to Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom. VOSTFR. She instilled in him a fondness for liberal thought; it is probably during this period that Louis Philippe picked up his slightly Voltairean[clarification needed] brand of Catholicism. Louis Philippe was then recalled to Paris to give an account of the Battle at Valmy to the French government. Candy Crush Saga. As well as the 7 undisputed Emperors and Kings after the French Revolution, this comes to a total of 52 undisputed monarchs of France. He was never proclaimed, making him disputed as a genuine monarch. During his time in the United States, Louis Philippe met with American politicians and people of high society, including George Clinton, John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and George Washington. Séries inspirées de livres. The Valois line looked strong on the death of Henry II, who left four male heirs. L’épopée historique violente de Netflix, The Last Kingdom autrement connu pour être la série préférée de Antoine Griezmann et Dembélé, est basée sur The Saxon Stories de Bernard Cornwell. Dumouriez was appointed to command the Army of the North in August 1792. Official Last Kings Online Store. Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. On 28 July 1835, Louis Philippe survived an assassination attempt by Giuseppe Mario Fieschi and two other conspirators in Paris. Various other kingdoms would continue to break apart and be formed as th… Soon thousands of troops were deserting the army. As Navarre did not have a tradition of male-only primogeniture, the Navarrese monarchy became distinct from the French, with Joan II, a daughter of Louis X, inheriting there. However, letters from Louis Philippe to his father were discovered in transit and were read out to the Convention. However, the comte de Chambord refused to take the throne unless the Tricolor flag of the Revolution was replaced with the fleur-de-lis flag of the Ancien Régime. Not listed below are Hugh Magnus, eldest son of Robert II, and Philip of France, eldest son of Louis VI; both were co-kings with their fathers (in accordance with the early Capetian practice whereby kings would crown their heirs in their own lifetimes and share power with the co-king), but predeceased them. [27] Louis Philippe had been instrumental in supporting the settlement project. From there they went to Zürich, where the Swiss authorities decreed that to protect Swiss neutrality, Louis Philippe would have to leave the city. Biron wrote to War Minister de Grave, praising the young colonel, who was then promoted to brigadier, commanding a brigade of cavalry in Lückner's Army of the North. Les Royaumes du Nord sombrent dans le chaos. The Third Republic was established, though many intended for it to be temporary, and replaced by a constitutional monarchy after the death of the comte de Chambord. Louis Philippe again commanded a division. The brothers were even held in Philadelphia briefly during an outbreak of yellow fever. Il est généralement placé après le nom et s'accorde avec le nom (ex : un ballon bleu, une balle bleue). [28], "Louis Philippe" redirects here. Head of the Royal House of Bourbon, Louis is descended in the male line from Philippe, Duke of Anjou, the second grandson of the Sun-King, Louis XIV. The elder branch of the House of Bourbon, to which the kings of France belonged, deeply distrusted the intentions of the cadet branch, which would succeed to the throne of France should the senior branch die out. The title "King of the Franks" (Latin: Rex Francorum) gradually lost ground after 1190, during … Eighteen people were killed, including Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Rieussec [fr] of the 8th Legion together with eight other officers, Marshal Mortier, duc de Trévise, and Colonel Raffet, General Girard, Captain Villate, General La Chasse de Vérigny, a woman, a 14-year-old girl and two men. Traductions en contexte de "the last King" en anglais-français avec Reverso Context : Gaius Cluilius, the last King of Alba Longa, who perished during the reign of Tullus Hostilius. While in Paris, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general. Philippe Égalité spoke in the National Convention, condemning his son for his actions, asserting that he would not spare his son, much akin to the Roman consul Brutus and his sons. The Last King: Genre : Aventure: Date sortie : 9 mai 2017: Langue : French: Qualité : Dvdrip: Dureé : 1h 36min: Réalisé par : Avec : Déscription : Les Royaumes du Nord sombrent dans le chaos. His visit to Cape Cod in 1797 coincided with the division of the town of Eastham into two towns, one of which took the name of Orleans, possibly in his honour. Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. Henri d'Artois, Charles X's grandson, is said by monarchists to be the King of France, as Henry V from 2 August 1830 to 9 August 1830. Unlike Louis, who attempted to escape France in extravagant transportation, he instead rode in an ordinary cab under the name of "Mr. He then left with his faithful valet Baudouin for the heights of the Alps, and then to Basel, where he sold all but one of his horses. That throne. (final) (final) dernier, dernière adj adjectif: modifie un nom. However, his opposition to the policies of Villèle and later of Jules de Polignac caused him to be viewed as a constant threat to the stability of Charles' government. BDRiP/DVDRiP; DVDSCR/R5; TS/CAM; DVD9; Filmographie; Nouveauté HDLight. Poussez les portes du royaume, le divertissement vous attend ! These souvenirs connected with a king rendered the bourgeoisie enthusiastic. The Capetian Dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, ruled France continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. As a further honorific gesture to Louis Philippe and his Orléanist branch of the Bourbons, the ship on which the settlers sailed to found the eponymous colony of Port Louis-Philippe was named the Comte de Paris after Louis Philippe's beloved infant grandson, Prince Philippe d'Orléans, Count of Paris who was born on 24 August 1838. The school, owned by a Monsieur Jost, was in Reichenau, a village on the upper Rhine in the then independent Grisons league state, now part of Switzerland. Philippe Égalité was then put under continuous surveillance. The next day, Louis Philippe dived into a river to save a drowning local engineer. Louis Philippe survived seven assassination attempts. Louis Philippe was alienated by the more radical policies of the Republic. The French First Republic lasted from 1792 to 1804, after which its popular First Consul, Napoléon Bonaparte, decided to make France a monarchy again. : aucune évaluation Date de parution : TBA. Lloyd est un jeune campagnard n'ayant qu'un … Date de sortie, renouvellement, histoire etc. Louis-Philippe d'Orléans was France's last king. On 4 April, Dumouriez and Louis Philippe left for the Austrian camp. Smith." First, three days after Louis XVI's flight to Varennes, a quarrel between two local priests and one of the new constitutional vicars became heated, and a crowd surrounded the inn where the priests were staying, demanding blood. However, his resentment at the treatment of his family, the cadet branch of the House of Bourbon under the Ancien Régime, caused friction between him and Louis XVIII, and he openly sided with the liberal opposition. Extreme Download Films SD DVDRiP The Last King - FRENCH BDRip. Avec : Alexander Dreymon,Emily Cox,David Dawson. From 22 June to 7 July 1815, Bonapartists considered Napoleon II as the legitimate heir to the throne, his father having abdicated in his favor. Entrez dans le royaume et faites-vous de nouveaux amis ! lundi 30 avril 2018 : vite, découvrez nos réductions sur l'offre The Last King sur Cdiscount ! However, throughout this period he resided in Austria, with his mother. His regiment was moved north to Flanders at the end of 1791 after the 27 August 1791 Declaration of Pillnitz. Rejoignez Tiffi et M. Toffee dans leur périple extraordinaire, et assortissez des bonbons pour progresser dans les centaines de niveaux de ce jeu en ligne succulent. Finally, in October 1793, Louis Philippe was appointed a teacher of geography, history, mathematics and modern languages, at a boys' boarding school. From 1340 to 1801 (but not from 1360 to 1369), the Kings of England and Great Britain claimed the title of King of France. With war imminent in 1791, all proprietary colonels were ordered to join their regiments. The cadet branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois and Bourbon. The Capetian dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, included the first rulers to adopt the title of 'King of France' for the first time with Philip II (r. 1180–1223). Regardez autant que vous voulez. Jouez en solo ou avec des amis Following the assassination of his third son, the childless Henry III, and the premature death of his fourth son Hercule François, France was plunged into a succession crisis over which distant cousin of the king would inherit the throne. [9], The dissonance between his positive early reputation and his late unpopularity was epitomized by Victor Hugo in Les Misérables as an oxymoron describing his reign as "Prince Equality", in which Hugo states:[10]. For about a year, he stayed in Muonio, a remote village in the valley of the Tornio river in Lapland. Ultimately, after winning numerous battles in defence of his claim, Henry converted to Catholicism and was crowned king, founding the House of Bourbon. [citation needed], An industrial and agricultural depression in 1846 led to the 1848 Revolutions, and Louis Philippe's abdication. By the time of his death in 1883, support for the monarchy had declined, and public opinion sided with a continuation of the Third Republic, as the form of government that, according to Adolphe Thiers, "divides us least". [4][5], In 1796, Louis Philippe supposedly fathered a child with Beata Caisa Wahlborn (1766–1830) named Erik Kolstrøm (1796–1879). [7] He was deposed and died in captivity. Menu . Thus the comte de Chambord's death would have united the House of Bourbon and House of Orléans. The best claimant, King Henry III of Navarre, was a Protestant, and thus unacceptable to much of the French nobility. At the 20 September 1792 Battle of Valmy, Louis Philippe was ordered to place a battery of artillery on the crest of the hill of Valmy. Louis Philippe travelled extensively. His popularity faded as economic conditions in France deteriorated in 1847, and he was forced to abdicate after the outbreak of the French Revolution of 1848. After the abdication of Napoleon, Louis Philippe, known as Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, returned to France during the reign of his cousin Louis XVIII, at the time of the Bourbon Restoration. Despite this outward appearance of simplicity, his support came from the wealthy bourgeoisie. He visited Scandinavia in 1795 and then moved on to Finland. They were intercepted by Lieutenant-Colonel Louis-Nicolas Davout, who had served at Jemappes with Louis Philippe. These included Colonel Berthier and Lieutenant Colonel Alexandre de Beauharnais (husband of the future Empress Joséphine). He lived in the rectory under the name Müller, as a guest of the local Lutheran vicar. Tatoeba Last Dungeon Mae no Mura no Shounen ga Joban no Machi de Kurasu Youna Monogatari VOSTFR . He had been at the school for a month when he heard the news from Paris: his father had been guillotined on 6 November 1793 after a trial before the Revolutionary Tribunal. After Louis Philippe left Reichenau, he separated the now sixteen-year-old Adélaïde from the Countess of Genlis, who had fallen out with Louis Philippe. ABONNEZ-VOUS . Another time, he woke up after spending a night in a barn to find himself at the far end of a musket, confronted by a man attempting to keep away thieves. He also promoted friendship with Britain and sponsored colonial expansion, notably the French conquest of Algeria. king translate: roi, roi, roi, roi, roi, roi. Les jeux King sont aussi faciles qu'addictifs ! Nouveauté Films SD. As a consequence, because the chamber was aware of Louis Philippe's liberal policies and of his popularity with the masses, they proclaimed Louis Philippe, who for eleven days had been acting as the regent for his young cousin, as the new French king, displacing the senior branch of the House of Bourbon. The French Second Republic lasted from 1848 to 1852, when its president, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was declared Emperor of the French. "The French Army Law of 1832. (For earlier rulers, see List of Frankish kings. The main line of descent from Hugh Capet is known as the House of Capet. At Reichenau, he gave lessons in mathematics, while his sister Adelaide did wool work and sewed. Louis Philippe", Historical and Biographical Sketch of Fieschi, Royal Victoria Hotel - Historical Hastings Wiki, "Liste chronologique des chevaliers de l'ordre du Saint-Esprit depuis son origine jusqu'à son extinction (1578–1830)", "Ordre de la Légion d'honneur: Textes officiels antérieurs à 1962", "Ordre royal et militaire de Saint-Louis", "Herzogliche Sachsen-Ernestinischer Hausorden", Militaire Willems-Orde: Bourbon, Louis Phillip prince de, https://www.beaussant-lefevre.com/lot/86924/8138236, Prince Antoine Philippe, Duke of Montpensier, Prince Louis Charles, Count of Beaujolais, Ferdinand Philippe, Prince Royal of France and Duke of Orléans, Gaston, Prince Imperial Consort of Brazil and Count of Eu, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, List of people associated with the French Revolution, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Louis_Philippe_I&oldid=997043017, French Republican military leaders of the French Revolutionary Wars, Names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe, Members of the Chamber of Peers of the Bourbon Restoration, Recipients of the Order of the Holy Spirit, Knights Grand Cross of the Military Order of William, Grand Crosses of the Saxe-Ernestine House Order, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Ferdinand and of Merit, Orléanist pretenders to the French throne, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking in-text citations from February 2012, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2009, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Princess Françoise Louise Caroline d'Orléans, Died aged two. The company responsible for the endeavour received Louis Philippe's signature on 11 December 1839 as well as his permission to carry out the voyage in line with his policy of supporting colonial expansion and the construction of a second empire which had first commenced under him in Algeria around a decade earlier. Le Roi légitime vient d’être assassiné et son fils nouveau-né doit être sauvé pour qu'il puisse accéder au trône. While in colonial Louisiana in 1798, they were entertained by Julien Poydras in the town of Pointe Coupée,[3] as well as by the Marigny de Mandeville family in New Orleans. He fled to Switzerland in 1793 after being connected with a plot to restore France's monarchy. Louis Philippe is also thought to have met Isaac Snow of Orleans, Massachusetts, who had escaped to France from a British prison hulk during the American Revolutionary War. Napoleon III would later be overthrown during the events of the Franco-Prussian War. He first moved to Switzerland under an assumed name, and met up with the Countess of Genlis and his sister Adélaïde at Schaffhausen. Her mother was opposed to the match for the same reason. They were refused entry to a monastery by monks who believed them to be young vagabonds. The Last Night. Between the period from King Charles the Bald in 843 to King Louis XVI in 1792, France had 45 kings. And the man is good. Louis Philippe struck up a lasting friendship with the British royal. [8] Upon his accession to the throne, Louis Philippe assumed the title of King of the French – a title already adopted by Louis XVI in the short-lived Constitution of 1791. The ceremony was celebrated in Palermo 25 November 1809. In August 843 the Treaty of Verdun divided the Frankish realm into three kingdoms, one of which was short-lived; the other two evolved into France and, eventually, Germany. 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